On climate and culture in world history: pronounced climatic change prompted cultural responses. Evidence of hunting first occurs in Africa from 18,000 years ago, when the last ice ago brought dry conditions to the continent, and the world’s earliest-known evidence of organized human-on-human violence dates from 14,000 years ago in Africa, when deteriorating conditions provoked competition for resources among populations whose numbers had expanded during the intervening period of benign conditions.

Africa, by John Reader

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