Dr. Nabrit, my fellow Americans:

I am delighted at the chance to speak at this important and this

historic institution. Howard has long been an outstanding center for

the education of Negro Americans. Its students are of every race and

color and they come from many countries of the world. It is truly a

working example of democratic excellence.

Our earth is the home of revolution. In every corner of every

continent men charged with hope contend with ancient ways in the

pursuit of justice. They reach for the newest of weapons to realize

the oldest of dreams, that each may walk in freedom and pride,

stretching his talents, enjoying the fruits of the earth.

Our enemies may occasionally seize the day of change, but it is the

banner of our revolution they take. And our own future is linked to

this process of swift and turbulent change in many lands in the world.

But nothing in any country touches us more profoundly, and nothing is

more freighted with meaning for our own destiny than the revolution of

the Negro American.

In far too many ways American Negroes have been another nation:

deprived of freedom, crippled by hatred, the doors of opportunity

closed to hope.

In our time change has come to this Nation, too. The American Negro,

acting with impressive restraint, has peacefully protested and

marched, entered the courtrooms and the seats of government, demanding

a justice that has long been denied. The voice of the Negro was the

call to action. But it is a tribute to America that, once aroused, the

courts and the Congress, the President and most of the people, have

been the allies of progress.


Thus we have seen the high court of the country declare that

discrimination based on race was repugnant to the Constitution, and

therefore void. We have seen in 1957, and 1960, and again in 1964, the

first civil rights legislation in this Nation in almost an entire century.

As majority leader of the United States Senate, I helped to guide two

of these bills through the Senate. And, as your President, I was proud

to sign the third. And now very soon we will have the fourth–a new

law guaranteeing every American the right to vote.

No act of my entire administration will give me greater satisfaction

than the day when my signature makes this bill, too, the law of this land.

The voting rights bill will be the latest, and among the most

important, in a long series of victories. But this victory–as Winston

Churchill said of another triumph for freedom–"is not the end. It is

not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the


That beginning is freedom; and the barriers to that freedom are

tumbling down. Freedom is the right to share, share fully and equally,

in American society–to vote, to hold a job, to enter a public place,

to go to school. It is the right to be treated in every part of our

national life as a person equal in dignity and promise to all others.


But freedom is not enough. You do not wipe away the scars of centuries

by saying: Now you are free to go where you want, and do as you

desire, and choose the leaders you please.

You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains

and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then

say, "you are free to compete with all the others," and still justly

believe that you have been completely fair.

Thus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our

citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.

This is the next and the more profound stage of the battle for civil

rights. We seek not just freedom but opportunity. We seek not just

legal equity but human ability, not just equality as a right and a

theory but equality as a fact and equality as a result.

For the task is to give 20 million Negroes the same chance as every

other American to learn and grow, to work and share in society, to

develop their abilities–physical, mental and spiritual, and to pursue

their individual happiness.

To this end equal opportunity is essential, but not enough, not

enough. Men and women of all races are born with the same range of

abilities. But ability is not just the product of birth. Ability is

stretched or stunted by the family that you live with, and the

neighborhood you live in–by the school you go to and the poverty or

the richness of your surroundings. It is the product of a hundred

unseen forces playing upon the little infant, the child, and finally

the man.


This graduating class at Howard University is witness to the

indomitable determination of the Negro American to win his way in

American life.

The number of Negroes in schools of higher learning has almost doubled

in 15 years. The number of nonwhite professional workers has more than

doubled in 10 years. The median income of Negro college women tonight

exceeds that of white college women. And there are also the enormous

accomplishments of distinguished individual Negroes–many of them

graduates of this institution, and one of them the first lady

ambassador in the history of the United States.

These are proud and impressive achievements. But they tell only the

story of a growing middle class minority, steadily narrowing the gap

between them and their white counterparts.


But for the great majority of Negro Americans-the poor, the

unemployed, the uprooted, and the dispossessed–there is a much

grimmer story. They still, as we meet here tonight, are another

nation. Despite the court orders and the laws, despite the legislative

victories and the speeches, for them the walls are rising and the gulf

is widening.

Here are some of the facts of this American failure.

Thirty-five years ago the rate of unemployment for Negroes and whites

was about the same. Tonight the Negro rate is twice as high.

In 1948 the 8 percent unemployment rate for Negro teenage boys was

actually less than that of whites. By last year that rate had grown to

23 percent, as against 13 percent for whites unemployed.

Between 1949 and 1959, the income of Negro men relative to white men

declined in every section of this country. From 1952 to 1963 the

median income of Negro families compared to white actually dropped

from 57 percent to 53 percent.

In the years 1955 through 1957, 22 percent of experienced Negro

workers were out of work at some time during the year. In 1961 through

1963 that proportion had soared to 29 percent.

Since 1947 the number of white families living in poverty has

decreased 27 percent while the number of poorer nonwhite families

decreased only 3 percent.

The infant mortality of nonwhites in 1940 was 70 percent greater than

whites. Twenty-two years later it was 90 percent greater.

Moreover, the isolation of Negro from white communities is increasing,

rather than decreasing as Negroes crowd into the central cities and

become a city within a city.

Of course Negro Americans as well as white Americans have shared in

our rising national abundance. But the harsh fact of the matter is

that in the battle for true equality too many–far too many–are

losing ground every day.


We are not completely sure why this is. We know the causes are complex

and subtle. But we do know the two broad basic reasons. And we do know

that we have to act.

First, Negroes are trapped–as many whites are trapped–in inherited,

gateless poverty. They lack training and skills. They are shut in, in

slums, without decent medical care. Private and public poverty combine

to cripple their capacities.

We are trying to attack these evils through our poverty program,

through our education program, through our medical care and our other

health programs, and a dozen more of the Great Society programs that

are aimed at the root causes of this poverty.

We will increase, and we will accelerate, and we will broaden this

attack in years to come until this most enduring of foes finally

yields to our unyielding will.

But there is a second cause–much more difficult to explain, more

deeply grounded, more desperate in its force. It is the devastating

heritage of long years of slavery; and a century of oppression,

hatred, and injustice.


For Negro poverty is not white poverty. Many of its causes and many of

its cures are the same. But there are differences-deep, corrosive,

obstinate differences–radiating painful roots into the community, and

into the family, and the nature of the individual.

These differences are not racial differences. They are solely and

simply the consequence of ancient brutality, past injustice, and

present prejudice. They are anguishing to observe. For the Negro they

are a constant reminder of oppression. For the white they are a

constant reminder of guilt. But they must be faced and they must be

dealt with and they must be overcome, if we are ever to reach the time

when the only difference between Negroes and whites is the color of

their skin.

Nor can we find a complete answer in the experience of other American

minorities. They made a valiant and a largely successful effort to

emerge from poverty and prejudice.

The Negro, like these others, will have to rely mostly upon his own

efforts. But he just can not do it alone. For they did not have the

heritage of centuries to overcome, and they did not have a cultural

tradition which had been twisted and battered by endless years of

hatred and hopelessness, nor were they excluded–these others–because

of race or color–a feeling whose dark intensity is matched by no

other prejudice in our society.

Nor can these differences be understood as isolated infirmities. They

are a seamless web. They cause each other. They result from each

other. They reinforce each other.

Much of the Negro community is buried under a blanket of history and

circumstance. It is not a lasting solution to lift just one corner of

that blanket. We must stand on all sides and we must raise the entire

cover if we are to liberate our fellow citizens.


One of the differences is the increased concentration of Negroes in

our cities. More than 73 percent of all Negroes live in urban areas

compared with less than 70 percent of the whites. Most of these

Negroes live in slums. Most of these Negroes live together–a

separated people.

Men are shaped by their world. When it is a world of decay, ringed by

an invisible wall, when escape is arduous and uncertain, and the

saving pressures of a more hopeful society are unknown, it can cripple

the youth and it can desolate the men.

There is also the burden that a dark skin can add to the search for a

productive place in our society. Unemployment strikes most swiftly and

broadly at the Negro, and this burden erodes hope. Blighted hope

breeds despair. Despair brings indifferences to the learning which

offers a way out. And despair, coupled with indifferences, is often

the source of destructive rebellion against the fabric of society.

There is also the lacerating hurt of early collision with white hatred

or prejudice, distaste or condescension. Other groups have felt

similar intolerance. But success and achievement could wipe it away.

They do not change the color of a man’s skin. I have seen this

uncomprehending pain in the eyes of the little, young Mexican-American

schoolchildren that I taught many years ago. But it can be overcome.

But, for many, the wounds are always open.


Perhaps most important–its influence radiating to every part of

life–is the breakdown of the Negro family structure. For this, most

of all, white America must accept responsibility. It flows from

centuries of oppression and persecution of the Negro man. It flows

from the long years of degradation and discrimination, which have

attacked his dignity and assaulted his ability to produce for his family.

This, too, is not pleasant to look upon. But it must be faced by those

whose serious intent is to improve the life of all Americans.

Only a minority–less than half–of all Negro children reach the age

of 18 having lived all their lives with both of their parents. At this

moment, tonight, little less than two-thirds are at home with both of

their parents. Probably a majority of all Negro children receive

federally-aided public assistance sometime during their childhood.

The family is the cornerstone of our society. More than any other

force it shapes the attitude, the hopes, the ambitions, and the values

of the child. And when the family collapses it is the children that

are usually damaged. When it happens on a massive scale the community

itself is crippled.

So, unless we work to strengthen the family, to create conditions

under which most parents will stay together–all the rest: schools,

and playgrounds, and public assistance, and private concern, will

never be enough to cut completely the circle of despair and deprivation.


There is no single easy answer to all of these problems.

Jobs are part of the answer. They bring the income which permits a man

to provide for his family.

Decent homes in decent surroundings and a chance to learn–an equal

chance to learn–are part of the answer.

Welfare and social programs better designed to hold families together

are part of the answer.

Care for the sick is part of the answer.

An understanding heart by all Americans is another big part of the answer.

And to all of these fronts–and a dozen more–I will dedicate the

expanding efforts of the Johnson administration.

But there are other answers that are still to be found. Nor do we

fully understand even all of the problems. Therefore, I want to

announce tonight that this fall I intend to call a White House

conference of scholars, and experts, and outstanding Negro

leaders–men of both races–and officials of Government at every level.

This White House conference’s theme and title will be "To Fulfill

These Rights."

Its object will be to help the American Negro fulfill the rights

which, after the long time of injustice, he is finally about to secure.

To move beyond opportunity to achievement.

To shatter forever not only the barriers of law and public practice,

but the walls which bound the condition of many by
the color of his skin.

To dissolve, as best we can, the antique enmities of the heart which

diminish the holder, divide the great democracy, and do wrong–great

wrong–to the children of God.

And I pledge you tonight that this will be a chief goal of my

administration, and of my program next year, and in the years to come.

And I hope, and I pray, and I believe, it will be a part of the

program of all America.


For what is justice?

It is to fulfill the fair expectations of man.

Thus, American justice is a very special thing. For, from the first,

this has been a land of towering expectations. It was to be a nation

where each man could be ruled by the common consent of all–enshrined

in law, given life by institutions, guided by men themselves subject

to its rule. And all–all of every station and origin–would be

touched equally in obligation and in liberty.

Beyond the law lay the land. It was a rich land, glowing with more

abundant promise than man had ever seen. Here, unlike any place yet

known, all were to share the harvest.

And beyond this was the dignity of man. Each could become whatever his

qualities of mind and spirit would permit–to strive, to seek, and, if

he could, to find his happiness.

This is American justice. We have pursued it faithfully to the edge of

our imperfections, and we have failed to find it for the American Negro.

So, it is the glorious opportunity of this generation to end the one

huge wrong of the American Nation and, in so doing, to find America

for ourselves, with the same immense thrill of discovery which gripped

those who first began to realize that here, at last, was a home for


All it will take is for all of us to understand what this country is

and what this country must become.

The Scripture promises: "I shall light a candle of understanding in

thine heart, which shall not be put out."

Together, and with millions more, we can light that candle of

understanding in the heart of all America.

And, once lit, it will never again go out.

NOTE: The President spoke at 6:35 p.m. on the Main Quadrangle in front

of the library at Howard University in Washington, after being awarded

an honorary degree of doctor of laws. His opening words referred to

Dr. James M. Nabrit, It., President of the University. During his

remarks he referred to Mrs. Patricia Harris, U.S. Ambassador to

Luxembourg and former associate professor of law at Howard University.

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was approved by the President on August

6, 1965.

Source: Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Lyndon

B. Johnson, 1965. Volume II, entry 301, pp. 635-640. Washington, D.

C.: Government Printing Office, 1966.

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